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The Dissertation This general guidance is to assist with MSc dissertations (long essays).Your dissertation provides you with an opportunity to write a substantial piece of academic work on a topic of interest to you.

It is an opportunity to produce a work of scholarship, using the academic skills you have developed Sometimes it takes 7 years to get back to square one… Jesse was a bright and ambitious student in a Biochemistry PhD program. She was always ready to learn new techniques, and she diversified her skill set by working in the animal facility, cell culture room, and also in a mass spectrometry lab. Her supervisor picked up  .It is an opportunity to produce a work of scholarship, using the academic skills you have developed.

Regardless of topic, your dissertation will demonstrate the following skills: defining and outlining a research topic; defining a clear research question; identifying the salient issues; evaluating its reliability and validity; weighing up the evidence on all sides of a debate;arriving at a well-argued conclusion; organising and presenting the results of your work critically, cogently and coherently.A piece of empirical research, conducted on a topic or issue of relevance to social policy.A literature-based long essay providing an analysis of a specific research question of relevance to social policy.There is no preference as to which type of dissertation you write.

Choosing a topic Your first task is to choose a topic that interests you.You need to find a manageable topic – one that has not been researched excessively nor so under-researched that there is no literature available for you to build on.Your supervisor will be able to help you to do this.Research question Having read relevant literature, you need to focus more specifically on a 'research question'.

This is of fundamental importance as it will ensure that your dissertation has a clear focus.

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It is not the same as your research topic, but is a specific question that you want to try and answer.Your research question needs to be defined with care and your supervisor will help you to do this.Your research question can assist with structuring of your dissertation economics dissertation handbook1 Royal Holloway University of nbsp.Your research question can assist with structuring of your dissertation.

As you are choosing your topic and defining your research question you will also have to decide upon the conceptual approach, or 'methodology', that you will adopt.Methodology concerns the relationship between your theoretical stance and the manner in which you conduct your investigation.

Most Social Policy dissertations do not fit neatly into any one methodological category or 'paradigm', but broadly speaking they are likely to tend towards one of three broad schools of thought: Empiricist All dissertations involve the use of empirical evidence (even if it is existing evidence reported in the relevant literature), but what is called empiricism is an approach to evidence that is aligned to the conventions associated with the natural sciences.It is concerned to explain external realities from an objective standpoint.Interpretive These are no less rigorous in their use of evidence than empiricist approaches, but interpretivism is a stance that characterises a major strand within the social sciences barrykang.com/powerpoint-presentation/how-to-get-a-addiction-powerpoint-presentation-44-pages-12100-words-30-days-college-junior-original.Interpretive These are no less rigorous in their use of evidence than empiricist approaches, but interpretivism is a stance that characterises a major strand within the social sciences.It is concerned to understand the nature or meaning of the social world from the subjective standpoint of the people involved.It tends to deal in processes of qualitative observation.

Critical or criticalist Any theoretical approach can result in criticism of social policy, but a critical(ist) approach to the use of evidence is one that is grounded in the analysis of social conflict or relationships of power (for example, Marxism, feminism, or post-structuralism).A critical(ist) approach may draw on elements of either or both of the other approaches insofar as they help to explain or understand social policy, but it is sceptical of empiricism and interpretivism because they do not necessarily question the underlying basis of the status quo.

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Many Social Policy dissertations are 'applied' rather than 'theoretical', and you may find it difficult to be explicit about your chosen methodology.It is important nonetheless to acknowledge that no dissertation can be free from the conceptual assumptions and the values that you yourself bring to it.You are encouraged to take any of these approaches, but you are required explicitly to reflect within the dissertation upon the basis of your approach Writing A Master s Project.

You are encouraged to take any of these approaches, but you are required explicitly to reflect within the dissertation upon the basis of your approach.

Please note that these structures are not meant to be prescriptive, but can form a starting point for thinking about your structure.In terms of content, the aspects mentioned below should normally be included possible to write a set of essays faster than a treatise, thereby reducing the opportunity cost of earning a PhD. In an earlier analysis of the time taken to earn a PhD in economics (Stock and. Siegfried, 2006) we found that students writing essay format dissertations finished about six months faster than those writing a treatise..In terms of content, the aspects mentioned below should normally be included.Remember to seek the advice or your supervisor about the exact structure you choose to adopt possible to write a set of essays faster than a treatise, thereby reducing the opportunity cost of earning a PhD. In an earlier analysis of the time taken to earn a PhD in economics (Stock and. Siegfried, 2006) we found that students writing essay format dissertations finished about six months faster than those writing a treatise..Remember to seek the advice or your supervisor about the exact structure you choose to adopt.Empirical Study Abstract/summary Literature review and policy context Methodology and research methods Conclusion Appendix – e., interview schedule if used It is also a good idea to look at the structure used in published peer-reviewed empirical studies best websites to get custom components technology case study 56 pages / 15400 words Chicago/Turabian British., interview schedule if used It is also a good idea to look at the structure used in published peer-reviewed empirical studies.Abstract Introduction The introduction will give details of the research topic you have decided to focus on, why the topic is of interest, what the gaps are in knowledge, how your dissertation 'adds value' to previous research (i.It should also include your research question (and any sub-question(s)).

The introduction should provide a brief overview of the structure of your dissertation (i., what different sections/chapters will focus on).

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Literature review and policy context The literature review should include literature that is pertinent to your research topic and the policy context.It should critically evaluate earlier work in the field, paying due attention to its contributions, and to any methodological problems and limitations involved.

Your literature review might draw on: policy documents research studies relevant theory Having identified gaps in the literature and ways in which you can add value to the research, you need to give your research question and explain how answering this adds to knowledge Help me write an dissertation economics A4 (British/European) Platinum Academic American.Your literature review might draw on: policy documents research studies relevant theory Having identified gaps in the literature and ways in which you can add value to the research, you need to give your research question and explain how answering this adds to knowledge.

This is one of the most important parts of your dissertation as it links with your methods and can help with structuring your dissertation.Methodology and research methods Give details of the methods you have used (sample, procedure etc Best website to write an dissertation economics A4 (British/European) AMA Standard Academic.Methodology and research methods Give details of the methods you have used (sample, procedure etc.Why have you used these methods? How do they enable you to answer the research question? Why are you using a quantitative or qualitative approach? What are the strengths and limitations of your methods?To what extent, if any, will you be able to generalise on the basis of your research? If you are carrying out primary research you need to say how you obtained your sample, how you have ensured anonymity of participants, and any other ethical issues Best website to write an dissertation economics A4 (British/European) AMA Standard Academic.

Why have you used these methods? How do they enable you to answer the research question? Why are you using a quantitative or qualitative approach? What are the strengths and limitations of your methods?To what extent, if any, will you be able to generalise on the basis of your research? If you are carrying out primary research you need to say how you obtained your sample, how you have ensured anonymity of participants, and any other ethical issues.

You need to explain how you obtained data, via interviews, questionnaires etc.If you are carrying out secondary data analysis you need to describe the data set you are using and relevant variables.If you have carried out empirical work, remember the need for informed consent and confidentiality (do not use actual names of individuals or organisations, institutions etc.(See Research Ethics) Your own personal safety is important when you are carrying out primary research (see Personal Safety and Risk Assessment) Results/findings These can be presented in different ways and will vary depending on whether your research usesquantitative or qualitative methods.

Discussion and conclusions (these can be separate sections) The discussion links your findings with the research question and literature review.Where there are differences, discuss possible reasons.

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It is important in this section that you reflect critically on the limitations of the empirical research you have undertaken.The conclusions drawn should be substantiated from within the body of the essay.What are the implications for policy and for future research? Literature based dissertation Abstract/summary Describe types of source material used (methodology and research methods) Critically analyse theory, concepts and bodies of research and other literature relating to your research question Discussion and implications for policy Conclusion References A well-argued dissertation is easy to follow Finishing your PhD thesis 15 top tips from those in the know Higher nbsp.

What are the implications for policy and for future research? Literature based dissertation Abstract/summary Describe types of source material used (methodology and research methods) Critically analyse theory, concepts and bodies of research and other literature relating to your research question Discussion and implications for policy Conclusion References A well-argued dissertation is easy to follow.

Essentially, you are trying to tell the reader a story.You will aid clarity if you break up the argument into clear steps.Abstract Introduction This will give details of the research topic you have decided to focus on, why the topic is of interest, what the gaps are in knowledge, how your dissertation 'adds value' to previous research (i.It should also include your research question (and any sub-question(s)).The research question should help with structuring your dissertation.You may be putting forward a particular argument and you can give this in your introduction with the issues that you are going to address.The introduction should provide a brief overview of the structure (i.Methodology and research methods This is likely to be a short section giving details of the types of material you have used, books, peer-reviewed articles, grey literature, press reports, internet based materials.It will also highlight any limitations.

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You need to be aware that some internet sites may be putting forward particular perspectives, so you will need to take this into account in your dissertation.You should also be aware of the limitations of 'grey' research (i.

, material that has not been through a peer review process) 27 Aug 2014 - “Writing the introduction and conclusion together will help to tie up the thesis together, so save it for the end.” (Ashish Jaiswal   “We often get feedback on individual chapters but plan to get feedback from your supervisor on the PhD as a whole to make sure it all hangs together nicely.” (Mel Rohse, PhD in  ., material that has not been through a peer review process).

Analysis of literature You are likely to have several chapters/sections that focus on different aspects of your research question/argument.You will also need to explore the policy context.Your analysis might draw on: policy documents 1) Make sure you meet the PhD requirements for your institution “PhD students and their supervisors often presume things without checking Where to buy college economics dissertation without plagiarism Standard 52 pages / 14300 words APA American.

Your analysis might draw on: policy documents 1) Make sure you meet the PhD requirements for your institution “PhD students and their supervisors often presume things without checking.

One supervisor told his student that a PhD was about 300 pages long so he wrote 300 pages best websites to write custom science and technology presentation University Writing from scratch CBE.One supervisor told his student that a PhD was about 300 pages long so he wrote 300 pages.Unfortunately the supervisor had meant double-spaced, and the student had written single-spaced.Getting rid of 40,000 extra words with two weeks to go is not recommended.” ( Hannah Farrimond, lecturer in medical sociology, Exeter University) 2) Keep perspective “Everyone wants their thesis to be amazing, their magnum opus.But your most important work will come later.

Your peers are unlikely to read your thesis and judge you on it.

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They are more likely to read any papers (articles, chapters, books) that result from it.” ( Dean D’Souza, PhD in cognitive neuroscience, Birkbeck, University of London) 3) Write the introduction last “Writing the introduction and conclusion together will help to tie up the thesis together, so save it for the end.” ( Ashish Jaiswal, PhD in business education, University of Oxford) 4) Use apps “Trello is a project management tool (available as a smartphone app) which allows you to create ‘boards’ on which to pin all of your outstanding tasks, deadlines, and ideas Need to order college dissertation economics Oxford Undergraduate 65 pages / 17875 words single spaced.

” ( Ashish Jaiswal, PhD in business education, University of Oxford) 4) Use apps “Trello is a project management tool (available as a smartphone app) which allows you to create ‘boards’ on which to pin all of your outstanding tasks, deadlines, and ideas.

It allows you to make checklists too so you know that all of your important stuff is listed and to-hand, meaning you can focus on one thing at a time.It’s satisfying to move notes into the ‘done’ column too How to Write a PhD Thesis Your Committee Will NOT Approve.It’s satisfying to move notes into the ‘done’ column too.” ( Lucy Irving, PhD in psychology, Middlesex University) 5) Address the unanswered questions “There will always be unanswered questions – don’t try to ignore or, even worse, obfuscate them.On the contrary, actively draw attention to them; identify them in your conclusion as areas for further investigation.Your PhD viva will go badly if you’ve attempted to disregard or evade the unresolved issues that your thesis has inevitably opened up.

” ( Michael Perfect, PhD in English literature, University of Cambridge) 6) Buy your own laser printer “A basic monochrome laser printer that can print duplex (two-sided) can be bought online for less than £100, with off-brand replacement toners available for about £30 a pop.Repeatedly reprinting and editing draft thesis chapters has two very helpful functions.Firstly, it takes your work off the screen and onto paper, which is usually easier to proof.Secondly, it gives you a legitimate excuse to get away from your desk.

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” ( James Brown, PhD in architectural education, Queen’s University Belfast) 7) Checking is important “On days when your brain is too tired to write, check quotations, bibliography etc so you’re still making progress.

” ( Julia Wright, professor of English at Dalhousie University, Canada) 8) Get feedback on the whole thesis “We often get feedback on individual chapters but plan to get feedback from your supervisor on the PhD as a whole to make sure it all hangs together nicely.” ( Mel Rohse, PhD in peace studies, University of Bradford) 9) Make sure you know when it will end “Sometimes supervisors use optimistic words such as ‘You are nearly there!’ Ask them to be specific 10 Jun 2013 - and is a valuable lesson for potential thesis writers. You will get a lower grade   ∗In addition to my own thoughts on how to write excellent economics research papers, I have also used materials from John Cochrane (University of Chicago Graduate School of Business), Claudia Goldin (Harvard Economics..” ( Mel Rohse, PhD in peace studies, University of Bradford) 9) Make sure you know when it will end “Sometimes supervisors use optimistic words such as ‘You are nearly there!’ Ask them to be specific.

Are you three months away, or do you have six months’ worth of work? Or is it just a month’s load?” ( Rifat Mahbub, PhD in women’s studies, University of York) 10) Prepare for the viva “Don’t just focus on the thesis – the viva is very important too and examiners’ opinions can change following a successful viva.Remember that you are the expert in your specific field, not the examiners, and ask your supervisor to arrange a mock viva if practically possible.” ( Christine Jones, 11) Develop your own style “Take into account everything your supervisor has said, attend to their suggestions about revisions to your work but also be true to your own style of writing The Dissertation. General Guidance. This general guidance is to assist with MSc dissertations (long essays). Your dissertation provides you with an opportunity to write a substantial piece of academic work on a topic of interest to you. It is an opportunity to produce a work of scholarship, using the academic skills you have  .

” ( Christine Jones, 11) Develop your own style “Take into account everything your supervisor has said, attend to their suggestions about revisions to your work but also be true to your own style of writing.

What I found constructive was paying attention to the work of novelists I enjoy reading.It may seem that their style has nothing to do with your own field of research, but this does not matter.You can still absorb something of how they write and what makes it effective, compelling and believable.” ( Sarah Skyrme, PhD in sociology, Newcastle University) 12) Remember that more is not always better “A PhD thesis is not a race to the highest page count; don’t waste time padding.” ( Francis Woodhouse, PhD in mathematical biology, University of Cambridge) 13) Get a buddy “Find a colleague, your partner, a friend who is willing to support you.

Share with them your milestones and goals, and agree to be accountable to them.

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This doesn’t mean they get to hassle or nag you, it just means someone else knows what you’re up to, and can help to check if your planning is realistic and achievable.” ( Cassandra Steer, PhD in criminology, University of Amsterdam) 14) Don’t pursue perfectionism “Remember that a PhD doesn’t have to be a masterpiece.Nothing more self-crippling than perfectionism How to Write a Good no Great PhD Dissertation.

Nothing more self-crippling than perfectionism.

” ( Nathan Waddell, lecturer in modernist literature, Nottingham University) 15) Look after yourself “Go outside.

Fresh air, trees and sunshine do wonders for what’s left of your sanity Students who wish to write a Master's Thesis should obtain the specific format guidelines for writing a thesis from the University's Thesis office. That said, the content and   The Master's Project should have the standard sections of a research paper, each of which addresses basic questions: 1. Introduction. What is the  .Fresh air, trees and sunshine do wonders for what’s left of your sanity.” ( Helen Coverdale, PhD in law, LSE) • Do you have any tips to add? Share your advice in the comments below Students who wish to write a Master's Thesis should obtain the specific format guidelines for writing a thesis from the University's Thesis office. That said, the content and   The Master's Project should have the standard sections of a research paper, each of which addresses basic questions: 1. Introduction. What is the  .” ( Helen Coverdale, PhD in law, LSE) • Do you have any tips to add? Share your advice in the comments below.